Can Chickens Eat Fish? What You Need to Know

Sliced Piece of Fish in a Pan

Article Summary

  • Chickens can eat fish in moderation, as it provides them with essential nutrients such as protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals.
  • Lean fish like tilapia, cod, and canned salmon are recommended for chickens, while predatory fish and bottom-dwellers with higher mercury levels should be avoided.
  • Fish should not be a daily part of a chicken’s diet, and variety in treats is essential for a balanced diet.

Fish can be a healthy and natural treat for chickens in moderation. Offering small amounts of fish provides chickens with important nutrients like protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. However, there are also some potential risks to be aware of when feeding fish to backyard chickens.

Is it Safe for Chickens to Eat Fish?

Yes, it is generally safe for chickens to eat most types of fish in moderation. Fish is a great source of lean protein and healthy fats that can complement a chicken’s regular diet.

There are a few precautions to take when offering fish to chickens:

  • Avoid raw fish, which may contain harmful bacteria or parasites. Cook, bake, or freeze fish before feeding it.
  • Only feed fish in small quantities, such as a few bites 1-2 times weekly. Too much can cause digestive issues.
  • Don’t feed chicken fish bones, which can be a choking hazard.
  • Remove fish scales, which can irritate a chicken’s digestive tract.
  • Look for sustainably caught fish when possible.

As long as these guidelines are followed, most types of fish are perfectly safe for chickens to eat. Start with small amounts to observe how your flock reacts.

What Are the Benefits of Feeding Fish to Chickens?

Feeding fish in moderation offers several health benefits:

Excellent Source of Protein

Fish is high in protein, providing amino acids that support muscle growth and egg production. The protein in fish is easily digestible for chickens.

Healthy Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3s are “healthy fats” that reduce inflammation and support brain development. Fish like salmon and trout are especially rich in these beneficial fatty acids.

Vitamins and Minerals

Fish contain lots of vitamins and minerals, including Vitamin D, selenium, iodine, and B vitamins. These nutrients boost immunity, reproduction, and overall chicken health.

Alternative Protein Source

Fish makes an excellent occasional substitute for typical protein sources like scratch grains or layer pellets. Variety is the key to a balanced diet.

Supports Foraging Behavior

Salmon Faverolle Foraging
Salmon Faverolle Foraging

Chickens love foraging for treats. Feeding whole fish allows chickens to engage in natural pecking, scratching, and foraging behaviors they enjoy.

For backyard chickens being fed a nutritious primary diet, the nutrients in fish make a great supplemental treat a couple of times a week.

Are There Any Risks Feeding Fish to Chickens?

Fish can benefit chickens, but there are also a few risks to consider:

Parasites and Bacteria

Raw fish may contain harmful bacteria like salmonella or parasites, which can make chickens sick. This risk is easily avoided by only feeding fully cooked fish.

Too Much Fat

Some fattier fish, like tuna, can cause diarrhea if fed too often. Leaner fish like tilapia or cod are better choices.

Bones and Scales

Fish bones and scales can injure or even choke chickens. Be sure to completely debone fish and scrape off scales before feeding.

Allergic Reaction

On rare occasions, chickens may have an allergic reaction to fish. Introduce new treats slowly to watch for any signs of sensitivity.

Difficulty Digesting

Chickens don’t always digest fish well, especially oily types. Start with small portions to see how your flock tolerates it.

To safely avoid risks, moderate the amount of fish fed, cook it fully, and remove any bones or scales before offering fish to backyard chickens. Monitor to ensure none have adverse reactions.

What Type of Fish Can Chickens Eat?

Chickens can eat most types of fish in moderation. The healthiest options are:

Lean Fish

Choose lean fish like tilapia, cod, flounder, or sole. These are lower in fat, so less likely to cause digestive upset.

Salmon and Trout

Cut Salmon With Herbs (image by Shutterbug75, Pixabay)
Cut Salmon With Herbs

Higher in omega-3s, salmon and trout offer the nutritional benefits of fatty fish in a portion-controlled treat.


Shrimp, crayfish, crab, and lobster all contain beneficial nutrients. Cooked shellfish is safe for chickens in moderation.

Freshwater Fish

Farm-raised fish like catfish, sunfish, bluegill, and perch make good treats and are often readily available fresh.

Canned Fish

Water-packed tuna, salmon, mackerel, and sardines are suitable for chickens in limited amounts. Rinse well to reduce sodium.


Avoid predatory fish, which may have higher mercury levels, like shark, swordfish, or king mackerel. Bottom-dwellers like catfish can be fed less often too.

For maximum health benefits and minimal risk, lean white fish varieties are the best fish to offer backyard chickens.

Can Chickens Eat Fish Guts?

It’s generally not recommended to feed chicken’s fish guts or other fish organ meats. Fish guts and organs may contain higher levels of fat, cholesterol, and toxins which can upset a chicken’s digestive system if they eat too much.

Fish guts also frequently harbor parasites like roundworms and tapeworms. Chickens with compromised immune systems are at a higher risk of contracting these parasites.

For best practice, fish guts and organs should be avoided. The safest parts of fish to feed chickens are the cooked muscle meat or “fillets”.

Can Chickens Eat Fish Skin?

Fish skin is ok for chickens to eat in small amounts as an occasional treat. The skin contains healthy fats and minerals. However, fish skin can also be fatty, which may cause diarrhea. To play it safe, skin should be removed before feeding larger fish.

With small fish like sardines, anchovies, or smelt, where the skin is thin and less fatty, it’s fine to leave the skin on when feeding to chickens in moderation. Just introduce slowly.

Also, be sure to cook the skin fully to kill any bacteria and peel off scales that could injure chickens when ingesting. Overall though, fish fillets without skin are the safest fish option for backyard chickens.

Can Chickens Eat Fish Bones?

It’s best to avoid feeding chicken’s fish bones. Fish bones, especially larger ones, pose a serious choking hazard or can splinter and puncture a chicken’s throat or digestive tract.

Smaller bones from fish like anchovies or smelt are less risky but can still pose a hazard. For safety, it’s wisest to completely debone any fish before feeding it to chickens.


If you do wish to feed bones for nutritional value, consider cooking them into a bone broth which softens bones before feeding in small amounts. But whole fish bones are too dangerous to directly feed chickens.

Can Chickens Eat Fried Fish?

A Closeup of Fried Fish (image by vargazs, Pixabay)
Fried Fish in a Platter

Fried fish is not an ideal food for chickens. The main concerns with fried fish are:

  • Fried coating – The breading or batter is high in carbohydrates and low in nutrients. Chickens can’t efficiently digest large amounts of starch and fat.
  • Increased fat – Frying adds a lot of saturated fat, which can overload a chicken’s digestive system.
  • Sodium – Most fried fish and coating mixes contain very high amounts of salt, which is unhealthy for chickens.
  • Trans fats – The oils used for frying are often hydrogenated vegetable oils high in trans fats. These unnatural fats are associated with health risks.

The safest way to feed fish is to bake, broil, or boil it. If you do wish to feed a fried fish treat very occasionally, be sure to peel off any fried coating and limit it to just a bite or two per chicken.

Can Chickens Eat Live Fish?

It’s not recommended to feed live fish to backyard chickens. There are a few risks:

  • Bacteria – Raw fish may carry Salmonella, E. coli, and other pathogens that cooking destroys.
  • Parasites – Live fish are more likely to harbor internal worms and parasites.
  • Choking hazard – A live fish thrashing around poses a choking risk if chickens try to swallow it alive.
  • Catching fish – Chickens would have difficulty catching quick, lively fish in a standing water container.

For safety and digestibility, fish should always be cooked fully to an internal temperature of 165°F before feeding to chickens.

An alternative is freezing fish for 2 weeks to kill parasites before thawing and feeding. But live fish pose unnecessary risks for chickens.

How Much Fish Can Chickens Eat?

Chickens should only eat fish in moderation, about 1-2 times per week at most. A single adult chicken can eat around 2 ounces of cooked fish at one time.

Feed fish as an occasional treat or protein supplement, not as a daily part of their diet. Too much fish can cause diarrhea, and some types are high in mercury with long-term consumption.

lavender orpington rooster in the yard
Lavender Orpington Rooster

To offer a two-ounce portion, follow these fish-feeding guidelines:

  • 1 small fillet or can of tuna = 2 oz
  • 4 large shrimp = 2 oz
  • 2 oz scoop of canned salmon = 2 oz
  • Half a 5 oz can of sardines = 2 oz
  • 3-4 oz of cooked fish scraps = 2 oz

Adjust amounts based on the size of your chickens. Also, introduce new foods slowly at first to watch for any signs of digestive upset.

How to Feed Fish to Chickens?

Follow these tips for safely feeding fish to chickens:

  • Purchase fresh seafood from reputable sellers, or use canned fish. Avoid raw fish.
  • Cook fish to an internal temperature of 165°F or until flaky to kill bacteria. Bake, boil, or broil fish.
  • Debone fish completely and peel off skin and scales, which can choke chickens.
  • Cut fish into bite-size pieces or flakes to make it easy for chickens to eat.
  • Place fish in a feeder or scatter on the ground. Provide enough that all chickens can have some.
  • Rinse canned fish to reduce sodium levels.
  • Introduce new foods slowly at first to watch for reactions.
  • Feed fish as a supplement no more than 1-2 times per week.
Raw Shrimp in a Seafood Store
Raw Shrimp in a Seafood Store

Properly preparing fish before serving ensures backyard chickens can safely enjoy the nutritional benefits. Monitor your flock as they start enjoying fish treats.

How Often to Feed Fish to Chickens?

Fish should be fed in moderation just 1-2 times per week at most. Chickens don’t require fish, so it should be an occasional treat.

Feeding fish daily or in large quantities can cause adverse health effects:

  • Excessive fat levels leading to pancreatitis or liver damage
  • Too much mercury or toxins accumulate over time
  • Nutritional imbalance from too much fish protein
  • Diarrhea or digestive upset
  • Potential allergic reactions

To be safe, restrict fish to a twice-weekly treat at the very most. One feeding should be around 2 oz of cooked fish per standard-size chicken.

Rotating fish treat with other protein-rich delights creates variety…

Also, don’t feed fish multiple days in a row. Instead, rotate with other protein-rich treats like mealworms, yogurt, chopped hard-boiled eggs, or cooked meat. Variety is important for a balanced backyard chicken diet.

Can Baby Chickens Eat Fish?

Fish is not recommended for baby chicks under 6 months old. Young chicks have sensitive digestive systems, and their diets should consist mainly of a high-quality starter feed.

Potential issues with feeding fish to baby chickens include:

  • Difficulty digesting bones and scales
  • Increased risk of bacterial contamination
  • Higher fat levels can cause diarrhea
  • Choking on bones or pieces that are too large
  • Allergies or sensitivity
Chicks Under a Heater
Chicks Under a Heater

If you wish to offer fish, wait until chicks are fully feathered and at least 16-20 weeks old. Start with just a bite or two at first to watch for any reactions.

For young chicks, provide a complete chick starter feed. Once mature, fish can become an occasional supplemental treat for grown chickens, along with other fresh foods. But hold off until chicks pass 6 months for the safest results.


Can chickens eat fish? Yes – in moderation, fish can be a healthy and nutritious supplement to a chicken’s diet. Lean fish like tilapia, cod, and canned salmon provide protein, healthy fats, and important vitamins and minerals when fed properly.

For safety, only feed cooked fish with all bones removed and limit to 1-2 times per week as a treat. Monitor chickens closely when introducing fish to watch for any signs of digestive upset or allergies. Focus on moderation and proper preparation, and fish can be a beneficial addition to a varied backyard chicken feeding routine.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can you feed chickens fish carcasses?

Yes, chickens can be fed fish carcasses. Fish carcasses provide a good source of protein, essential fatty acids, and minerals for chickens. However, it’s crucial to ensure that the fish is fresh, properly cleaned, and free from any contaminants that may harm the chickens.

Can chickens eat sardines?

Yes, chickens can eat sardines. Sardines are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and protein, making them a nutritious treat for chickens. It’s advisable to feed sardines in moderation and ensure they are fresh or properly preserved to avoid any potential health issues.

Can chickens have tuna fish?

Yes, chickens can have tuna fish in moderation. Tuna is a good source of protein and omega-3 fatty acids, which can contribute to the overall health of chickens. However, it’s important to feed tuna in moderation and ensure it’s plain, without added salt or seasonings, as excessive salt can be harmful to chickens.

Why is fish meal good for chickens?

Fish meal is good for chickens because it is a highly digestible and protein-rich supplement. It provides essential amino acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and minerals, promoting healthy growth, feather development, and overall well-being in chickens. Fish meal is a valuable dietary addition, particularly for improving the nutritional profile of poultry feed.

Is fish bone meal good for chickens?

Yes, fish bone meal is beneficial for chickens. It is a rich source of calcium and phosphorus, essential minerals for bone development, eggshell formation, and overall skeletal health in chickens. To soften the bones, cook them in a pot and make a bone broth. Incorporating fish bone meal into their diet can contribute to stronger bones and better egg quality. As with any supplement, it’s important to use fish bone meal in moderation and as part of a balanced diet for chickens.